The Chunnel. Or the French call Le tunnel sous la Manche.
Tunnel under the sea is the longest in the world. Create links between Folkestone of England and Calais town in northern France. Both runways of the trains and cars that make the communication between England and France is very easy. Chunnel has a total length of 50.5 kilometers. With the 37.9 km long beneath the sea in the lowest 75 meters deep.
The Chunnel Construction and managed by Euro tunnel, they manages high-speed train Eurostar. Construction begins on 1988 to enable the Chunnel on May 6, 1994. Open Transport on 14 November 1994 (6 years for construction). Construction spending more than £ 4,650 billion in more expected 80%. Concept in the construction of the Chunnel Have been proposed since the 19th century.
The project proposal to the Emperor Napoleon the third in the Budget Year 1856 with 170 million franc (£ 7 million). Next William Gladstone the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Year 1865 But this project has been canceled due to political stability and national defense. This project is considered again in 1955, the issue of defense were that remove because that period the invasion of the country can be done with airplane. But the project was delayed because of political problems in the United Kingdom. Until the year 1981, Margaret Thatcher and Francois mitterrand Leaders of the two countries have reached an agreement for the construction of Chunnel.
In July year 1987 Kawasaki has been run two tunneling machines (TBMs).With a diameter of 8.17 meters to be used for the drilling of two tunnels under water tunnel from Sangatte in northern France to the coast England. Both machines are being sent from the Kawasaki factory Harima more items and pass the test Again and again until they are satisfied. Both machines are sent from the Harima Plant of Kawasaki. A sign called "Europe" and "Catherine." Both machines can do a top speed of 1,200 meters per month. And drill up to 600 to 700 meters per month in the rough stone floor.Two and a half years after the start drilling the ground.
Channel Tunnel rail construction was completed successfully On May 6, 1994. And trains began running in the southern Strait after 200 years, and the effort failed 26 times after Napoleon had planned to build.